A microfluidic chip is a set of micro-channels etched or molded into a material, such as glass, silicon or polymer (PDMS, PC, COP, etc.). In order to control and confine fluids at the micro-scale, microfluidic chips with micro-channels are designed and fabricated into devices, where patterns of microchannels are either molded or engraved. In addition, active or passive flow-control elements, such as membranes or valves, can be implemented onto the chip in order to carefully manage fluids.
These micro-channels are connected together in order to achieve the desired features and functionalities, such as mixing, pumping, sorting, or controlling the biochemical environment. This network of micro-channels trapped into the microfluidic chip is connected to the outside by inputs and outputs pierced through the chip, as an interface between the macro- and micro-world.